Patient Info

Helpful Information for Patients


What are inguinal hernias and hydroceles?

The scrotum is the pouch of skin surrounding your testicles. An inguinal hernia occurs when a small part of your intestine enters the scrotum. There are two types of inguinal hernias, an indirect inguinal hernia occurs during birth and is more common in premature infants. A direct inguinal hernia occurs in older adult males.


The scrotum also has a thin sac surrounding the testicles that could be filled with fluid, if this happens, it is called a hydrocele. Hydroceles can occur in both infants and older males.

How to tell if you have these conditions

Hernias do not usually cause any pain but could be seen or felt. Pain occurs when the intestine enters the scrotum and causes pressure and swelling.


Hydroceles are usually painless and in infants, may go away by itself. Older males may experience pain as a result of the enlargement of their scrotum.

How are they confirmed?

A physical exam along with an ultrasound is usually done by your doctor. During the physical exam, the doctor may apply some pressure to your abdominal region and scrotum to check for any tenderness and for the presence of a hernia. Your doctor may also get you to cough if a bulge is present and observe its movements.


An ultrasound or x-ray can also help your doctor determine the cause of the scrotum swelling if any and confirm a hernia.


Blood and urine tests may also be done to look for signs of any infection that may also be present.


Your doctor may also shine a light through the scrotum to check for the presence of any fluid. If there is a hydrocele, your doctor would be able to see fluid surrounding the testicles.

How we treat these conditions


Surgery is usually performed when a hydrocele enlarges or causes discomforts. Different surgical procedures are performed depending on the nature of the cause of the hydrocele.

A “non-communicating” hydrocele occurs when it is not caused by an inguinal hernia. In this case, surgery is done on the scrotum and the hydrocele is removed directly by your doctor.

A “communicating” hydrocele occurs when it is caused by an inguinal hernia. Surgery is done to both fix the hernia and the hydrocele.

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Inguinal Hernias

Inguinal hernias are treated by surgical procedures. During the surgery, the bulging tissue is replaced, and the hole formed by the penetration of the intestine is repaired.

Laparoscopic Hernia Repair

Your doctor may perform a procedure known as a Laparoscopic Hernia Repair during your surgery. A laparoscope is an instrument with a camera at the end that is used to guide your doctor during the surgery. This method allows smaller cuts to be made by your doctor and would allow faster recovery time after the surgery.

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Why should you choose Dr Colin Teo to perform your Hernia Surgery?

Dr Colin Teo is a respected ex-founding Head of Urology Department with year’s of experience in minimally invasive key-hole surgery operating with precision surgical techniques and has trained many of his trainees and fellows. He did a Fellowship in EndoLaparoscopy and Andrology in St James’s Hospital in Leeds, UK, and was sponsored for a senior Healthcare Medical Development Program (HMDP) in Advanced Laparoscopic and Robotic Surgery in University of Southern California (USC) Keck Hospital in Los Angeles, USA. He performs his Laparoscopic Hernia Repair as a day surgery and provides close and personal peri-operative care with his dedicated clinical team to ensure an optimal recovery outcome for his patients.